Lusi mud volcano
Davies, Richard J. Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.
- Location and dimensions
- Next developmental stages
- Links to Primary Literature
When sediments are deposited and then buried, they start to compact and undergo chemical changes that turn them into sedimentary rock. Some of the water located between individual grains, along with the fluid and gas produced by the chemical reactions, escapes to the surface. In some cases, this movement of fluid and gas occurs through focused regions a few meters to a couple of kilometers across. During the ascent from depths of up to 5 km (3.1 mi), the fluid and gas can mix with sediment (sand or mud) that has not yet turned into rock. The result is an eruption of sediment, fluid, and gas at the surface. There are thousands of mud volcanoes on Earth, but they are poorly understood phenomena because (1) we cannot witness most of the processes directly as they are occurring underground, (2) little is known about the geological conditions prior to and during eruptions, and (3) unlike igneous systems, there are few fossil mud volcanoes that have been exposed on the surface of the Earth that can be examined in detail.
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