Klick, Clifford C. Solid State Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
Schulman, James H. Formerly, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
- Fluorescence and phosphorescence
- Type of radiation emitted
- Luminescent substances
- Activators and poisons
- Luminescence in Atomic Gases
- Configuration Coordinate Curve Model
- Quantum-mechanical corrections
- High dielectric constant materials
- Sensitized Luminescence
- Resonant transfer
- Concentration quenching
- Luminescence Involving Electron Motion
- Additional Reading
Light emission that cannot be attributed merely to the temperature of the emitting body. Various types of luminescence are often distinguished according to the source of the energy which excites the emission. When the light energy emitted results from a chemical reaction, such as in the slow oxidation of phosphorus at ordinary temperatures, the emission is called chemiluminescence. When the luminescent chemical reaction occurs in a living system, such as in the glow of the firefly, the emission is called bioluminescence. In the foregoing two examples part of the energy of a chemical reaction is converted into light. There are also types of luminescence that are initiated by the flow of some form of energy into the body from the outside. According to the source of the exciting energy, these luminescences are designated as cathodoluminescence if the energy comes from electron bombardment; radioluminescence or roentgenoluminescence if the energy comes from x-rays or from gamma rays; photoluminescence if the energy comes from ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation; and electroluminescence if the energy comes from the application of an electric field. By attaching a suitable prefix to the word luminescence, similar designations may be coined to characterize luminescence excited by other agents. Since a given substance can frequently be made to luminesce by a number of different external exciting agents, and since the atomic and electronic phenomena that cause luminescence are basically the same regardless of the mode of excitation, the classification of luminescence phenomena into the foregoing categories is essentially only a matter of convenience, not of fundamental distinction.
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