Fried, George H. Brooklyn College, City University of New York, New York, New York.
Last reviewed:August 2019
Show previous versions
- Comparative anatomy
- Nonhuman vertebrates
- Parenchymal cells
- Sinusoidal lining cells
- Connective tissue
- Control of carbohydrate metabolism
- Interconversion of metabolites
- Blood protein manufacture
- Erythropoietic function
- Bile formation
- Vitamin storage
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A large gland and internal organ found in all vertebrates. The liver is vital for proper functioning of vertebrate animals. As the largest gland and internal organ (a differentiated structure adapted for a specific function) of the vertebrate body, it executes numerous tasks that affect other body systems. For example, the liver is necessary for the secretion of bile, the manufacturing of certain blood proteins and enzymes, and the removal of toxins from the systemic circulation. Moreover, the liver is a key structure needed for the interconversion of many metabolites. It is a major site of production of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, ketone bodies, and cholesterol. In addition, steroid hormones are degraded in the liver. Structurally, the liver (Fig. 1) consists of a continuous parenchymal mass forming a system of walls (muralium) through which venous blood from the gut must pass. This strategic localization between nutrient-laden capillary beds and the general circulation is associated with hepatic (liver-related) regulation of metabolite levels in the blood through storage and mobilization mechanisms controlled by liver enzymes. See also: Blood; Cholesterol; Enzyme; Fat and oil; Gland; Hormone; Ketone; Phospholipid; Protein; Steroid; Toxin; Triglyceride (triacylglycerol); Vertebrata
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information