Milner, Andrew Vertebrate Palaeontology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, Birbeck College, London, United Kingdom.
Estes, Richard Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
- Sound perception
- Phylogeny and fossil record
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The taxon that includes all modern amphibians (living and fossil frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caecilians). The taxon class Amphibia comprises the Lissamphibia and their more distant extinct relatives. Early amphibian-grade tetrapods are now categorized as stem-tetrapods (outside the lissamphibian-amniote relationship), stem-amphibians (related to modern lissamphibians), or stem-amniotes (early amphibian-grade relatives of modern reptiles, birds, and mammals). The precise position of many early amphibian-grade tetrapods in relation to the living lissamphibians and amniotes is controversial. See also: Amniota; Amphibia; Anura; Apoda; Tetrapoda; Urodela
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information