Hunter, Lloyd P. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
- Alloy-junction transistors
- Grown-junction transistors
- Planar diffused epitaxial transistors
- Mesa transistors
- Power transistors
- Unijunction transistor
- Additional Readings
A transistor in which emitter and collector barriers are formed by pn junctions between semiconductor regions of opposite conductivity type. These junctions are separated by a distance considerably less than a minority-carrier diffusion length, so that minority carriers injected at the emitter junction will not recombine before reaching the collector barrier and therefore be effective in modulating the collector-barrier impedance. Junction transistors are widely used both as discrete devices and in integrated circuits. The discrete devices are found in the high-power and high-frequency applications. Junction transistors range in power rating from a few milliwatts to about 300 W, in characteristic frequency from 0.5 to 2000 MHz, and in gain from 10 to 50 dB. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material, although germanium is still used for some applications. Junction transistors are applicable to any electronic amplification, detection, or switching problem not requiring operation above 200°C (392°F), 700 V, or 2000 MHz. Not all these limits can be achieved in one device, however. Junction transistors are classified by the number and order of their regions of different conductivity type, by the method of fabricating and structure, and sometimes by the principle of operation. Most modern transistors are fabricated by the silicon self-masked planar double-diffusion technique. The alloy technique and the grown-junction technique are primarily of historical importance. For a general description and definition of terms used here and a description of the mechanism of operation. See also: Transistor
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