Kelley, Michael C. Engineering and Theory Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Johnson, Francis S. University of Texas, Dallas, Texas.
- Heliosphere and protonosphere
- Space plasma physics
- Additional Readings
The part of the upper atmosphere that is sufficiently ionized that the concentration of free electrons affects the propagation of radio waves. Existence of the ionosphere was suggested simultaneously in 1902 by O. Heaviside in England and A. E. Kennelly in the United States to explain the transatlantic radio communication that was demonstrated the previous year by G. Marconi; and for many years it was commonly referred to as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. The existence of the ionosphere as an electronically conducting region had been postulated earlier by B. Steward to explain the daily variations in the geomagnetic field. See also: Ionization; Radio-wave propagation
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