Maramorosch, Karl Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
- Shrimp and prawns
- Nonmicrobial diseases
- Practical applications
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The study of diseases affecting invertebrate animals, including etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, pathology, histopathology, physiopathology, and epizootiology. Interactions between invertebrates and their diverse pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, range from obligate parasitism to various associations that may result in disease. Disease is described usually as a disturbance of the equilibrium between the invertebrate animal and the environment, and it should be understood as a process and not a thing. The disease process represents the response of an invertebrate organism to injury. Its occurrence is a normal biological phenomenon, and it has been recognized as a balancing factor in nature. Understanding invertebrate pathology is essential to understanding invertebrate life and behavior. See also: Disease; Pathogen; Pathology
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