White, Morris F. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
Last reviewed:September 2016
Show previous versions
- Physiological activity
- Commercial production
- Insulin receptors
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A protein hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and regulating the amount of glucose in the blood. Insulin is a key body hormone and participates in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It is produced and secreted by pancreatic beta cells (Fig. 1) located in the islets of Langerhans. Along with insulinlike growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), insulin regulates a variety of metabolic and growth-related effects in target tissues, including stimulation of glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, lipogenesis, gene transcription, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Moreover, the insulin/IGF signaling system promotes cell growth and survival, as well as being essential for normal reproductive capacity. When insulin becomes unavailable or fails to function, diabetes ensues. See also: Carbohydrate metabolism; Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); Diabetes; Gene; Glucose; Glycogen; Hormone; Lipid metabolism; Pancreas; Transcription
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information