Pinker, Rachel T. Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
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The incident radiant energy emitted by the Sun, which reaches a unit horizontal area of the Earth's surface. The term is a contraction of incoming solar radiation. About 99.9% of the Sun's energy is in the spectral range of 0.15–4.0 micrometers. About 95% of this energy is in the range of 0.3–2.4 μm; 1.2% is below 0.3 μm, and 3.6% is above 2.4 μm. The bulk of the insolation (99%) is in the spectral region of 0.25–4.0 μm; about 40% is found in the visible region of 0.4–0.7 μm and only 10% is in wavelengths shorter than the visible. Energy of wavelengths shorter than 0.29 μm is absorbed high in the atmosphere by nitrogen, oxygen, and ozone.
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