Alexander, W. Nathan Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Last reviewed:January 2020
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- Units of measurement
- Principle of operation
- Types of constant-mass hydrometers
- Float-type hydrometer
- Needle-type hydrometer
- Ball-type hydrometer
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
An instrument used to measure the density of a liquid. Often, the measurement is given in reference to the density of another liquid, typically water, as specific gravity, SG = ρsample/ρref, where ρsample and ρref are the densities of the sample and the reference liquid, respectively, but other units are common as well. For instance, degrees Baumé, API, or Brix, and alcohol proof are all units of measurement found on hydrometer scales, each of which ultimately relates to the density of the solution for defined applications. These density relations are specific to a reference solution temperature and a sample solution temperature defined by the manufacturer. Corrections may need to be applied for measurements at other liquid temperatures. See also: Density
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