Wagner, Frank Technical Center, Celanese Chemical Company, Corpus Christi, Texas.
Kastner, Miriam Geologic Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California.
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A particular form of a solid compound which has water in the form of H2O molecules associated with it. For example, anhydrous copper sulfate is a white solid with the formula CuSO4. When crystallized from water, a blue crystalline solid which contains water molecules as part of the crystals is formed. Analysis shows that the water is present in a definite amount, and the hydrate may be given the formula CuSO4 · 5H2O. Four of the water molecules are attached to the copper ion in the manner of coordination complexes, and the fifth water molecule is related to the sulfate and presumably held by hydrogen bonding. See also: Hydrogen bond
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