Baker, Chad Center for Integrated Mobility Sciences, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.
Gonder, Jeffrey Center for Integrated Mobility Services, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.
Farrington, Robert Center for Integrated Mobility Services, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.
Last reviewed:August 2020
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- Why use hybrid vehicles?
- Efficiently satisfy the vehicle driving forces
- Efficiently convert fuel to motion energy
- Efficiently power the vehicle's ancillary loads
- Summary of efficiency improvements
- Hybrid electric vehicle components
- Energy storage system/batteries
- Electric motors and generators
- Power electronics
- Hybrid powertrain designs
- Do HEVs save fuel?
- What are the barriers?
- Plug-in HEVs, fuel-cell vehicles, and electric vehicles
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A vehicle that uses two or more sources of energy for propulsion. Typically, one source of energy is a liquid or gaseous fuel, and the other is an energy-storage system such as a battery or ultracapacitor. Other options for energy storage include compressed gas, pressurized liquids (hydraulics), and mechanical energy stored in a flywheel. The most common type of hybrid vehicle is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV; Fig. 1), which typically uses a liquid fuel (gasoline, diesel, or a gasoline/ethanol blend) to power an internal combustion engine that works with batteries, or ultracapacitors, to power an electric motor. See also: Alternative fuels for vehicles; Battery; Diesel fuel; Energy storage; Flywheel; Gasoline; Internal combustion engine
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