Graves, Arthur H. Formerly, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut.
Davis, Kenneth P. Formerly, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Any tree of the genus Carpinus of the birch family. Hornbeam is represented in the United States by C. caroliniana, the American hornbeam or blue beech. It is a small tree, sometimes attaining a height of 35 ft (10.7 m), and has a smooth, steel-gray, fluted bark. It grows throughout the eastern half of the United States, especially in moist soil along the banks of streams; it is sometimes called water beech. When it is mature, it is recognized easily by its peculiar bark, by the doubly serrate leaves resembling those of sweet birch (see illustration), and by the small, pointed, angular winter buds with scales in four rows. The fruit is a small nutlet subtended by a three-lobed serrate bract. The wood is very hard, giving rise to the name ironwood. The Janka hardness for American hornbeam is 1780 lb-force (807 kg-force); its density is 47 lb/ft3 (753 kg/m3). The bole of this tree is rarely used for sawn products because it is short and usually crooked. Leaves turn scarlet or orange in the autumn.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information