Curtin, Charles B. Department of Biology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska.
Last reviewed:January 2020
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The developmental processes by which the definite cells and tissues that make up the body of an organism arise from embryonic cells. Among animals, the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, also known as the primary germ layers, provide the stem cells, which gradually transform into distinctive kinds of cells and tissues. In the higher plants, meristematic cells, which occur wherever extensive growth takes place, provide the basis for histogenesis and tissue formation. Parenchyma, a simple permanent tissue, may dedifferentiate and become meristematic. See also: Apical meristem; Embryology; Embryonic differentiation; Germ layers; Histology; Lateral meristem; Parenchyma; Plant tissue systems; Stem cells; Tissue
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