Cronquist, Arthur New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York.
Barkley, Theodore M. Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
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A small subclass of the class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) in the division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), the flowering plants, consisting of 11 orders (Trochodendrales, Hamamelidales, Daphniphyllales, Didymelales, Eucommiales, Urticales, Leitneriales, Juglandales, Myricales, Fagales, and Casuarinales), 24 families, and about 3400 species. They have strongly reduced, often unisexual flowers with poorly developed or no perianth. In the more advanced types, the flowers of one or both sexes are borne in catkins, and the mature fruit is unilocular and indehiscent, with only a single seed. With the notable exception of some of the Urticales, they are all woody plants. Pollination is usually by wind. Many of the families formerly grouped under the Amentiferae belong to the Hamamelidae. See also: Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Plant kingdom
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