Graves, Arthur H. Formerly, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut.
Davis, Kenneth P. Formerly, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Additional Readings
A medium-sized to large tree, Celtis occidentalis, occasionally growing to 118 ft (36 m). The hackberry tree (see illustration) occurs in the eastern half of the United States, except the extreme south, and has corky or warty bark; alternate, long-pointed serrate leaves that are unequal at the base; and a small drupaceous fruit with thin, sweet, edible flesh. The pith of the twigs is chambered. The wood is used for furniture, boxes, and baskets. The hackberry is a shade tree and is also used for shelterbelts (windbreaks), which are barriers of trees to reduce erosion and provide shelter from wind and storm activity. The Janka hardness for hackberry is 880 lb-force (399 kg-force); its density is 38 lb/ft3 (609 kg/m3). Sugarberry (C. laevigata) is similar to hackberry. It grows in the southeastern United States and has narrower leaves with entire margins and smaller fruit. It is used for furniture, boxes, and baskets; shelterbelts; and shade. See also: Forest and forestry; Tree
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