Pinder, George F. College of Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
Barcelona, Michael J. Institute for Water Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Last reviewed:June 2018
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- Regional flow
- Artesian systems
- Groundwater withdrawal
- Chemical and physical characteristics
- Reservoir behavior
- Groundwater quality
- Non-aqueous-phase contamination
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of any liquid water residing beneath the surface of the Earth. This article excludes any water molecules that constitute mineral species such as clays. Generally, groundwater is that fraction of precipitation that infiltrates the land surface and subsequently moves, in response to various hydrodynamic forces, to reappear once again as seeps or in a more obvious fashion as springs (Fig. 1). Most of groundwater discharge is not evident because it occurs through the bottoms of surface water bodies; in fact, large freshwater springs are relatively common on the ocean bottom off the eastern coast of Florida. See also: Hydrology; Spring (hydrology)
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