Kaufmann, R. H. Formerly, Consultant, Schenectady, New York.
McPartland, Brian J. Consultant, Tappan, New York.
- System grounding
- Equipment (safety) grounding
- Protection considerations
- Grounding of outdoor stations
- Additional Reading
Intentional electric connections to a reference conducting plane, which is typically earth (hence the use of the term “ground,” of “earth” in British usage), but which more generally consists of a specific array of interconnected electrical conductors, referred to as the grounding electrode conductor. The symbol that denotes a connection to the grounding conductor is three parallel horizontal lines, the lower two being shorter than the one above (Fig. 1). The electric system of an airplane, spacecraft, satellite, or ship observes specific grounding practices with prescribed points of grounding, but no connection to earth is involved in this scheme. A connection to such a reference grounding conductor which is independent of earth is denoted by the symbol shown in Fig. 2.
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