McBride, Earle F. Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Last reviewed:November 2019
- Mineral composition
- Matrix origin
- Depositional origin
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A strongly cemented or hardened (indurated) dark gray sandstone that is characterized by abundant dark-colored detrital rock fragments and more than 15% clay minerals (matrix) between sand grains. Graywacke sands were deposited chiefly in marine basins near the edge of continental margins where plate subduction was taking place. Subsequent compressional deformation and uplift of rocks in the sedimentary basins resulted in the occurrence of most graywackes in Alpine-type (compressional) mountain ranges. See also: Clay minerals; Continental margin
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