Grand unification theories
Kim, Chung W. Department of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Last reviewed:March 2019
Show previous versions
- Models and successes
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Attempts to unify three fundamental interactions—strong, electromagnetic, and weak—into one interaction at some very high energy. Also referred to as Grand Unified Theory, grand unification theories (GUTs) posit that three out of the four recognized fundamental interactions in nature, with the exception of gravity, are actually aspects of an underlying, more fundamental interaction. The theory aims to describe how the three forces split as the initially extreme energies and temperatures in the universe decreased in the trillionths of a trillionth of a second following the big bang (see illustration). Despite compelling theoretical evidence, experiments to date have not borne out GUTs. See also: Big bang theory; Electromagnetism; Energy; Fundamental interactions; Gravitation; Strong nuclear interactions; Temperature; Weak nuclear interactions
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information