Studenny, John CMC Electronics Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Angus, James W. Formerly, Intercontinental Dynamics Corporation, Englewood, New Jersey.
- Additional Readings
An aircraft landing instrument that provides the pilot with a visual indication of vertical and horizontal angular deviations from a glide path or final approach segment (FAS) that indicates the off-center position of the aircraft from the FAS with respect to the touchdown point. The FAS is horizontally centered on the runway and points to a runway touchdown point, typically with a 3° descent angle. The vertical angular deviation or glide slope, and the horizontal angular deviation or localizer angle, are provided by an instrument landing system (ILS), Global Positioning System (GPS), or microwave landing system (MLS) receiver. See also: Aircraft instrumentation; Automatic landing system; Instrument landing system (ILS); Microwave landing system (MLS); Satellite navigation systems
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