Hooke, Roger LeB. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
Last reviewed:October 2019
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- Classification of glaciers
- Glacier growth and mass balance
- Flow of ice
- Sliding and till deformation
- Water movement
- Glacier surges
- Ice streams
- Glacier erosion
- Glacier deposition
- Climatic record in glaciers
- Glaciers of the ice ages
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A broad field encompassing all aspects of the study of ice. Many glaciologists focus their attention on glaciers, the largest ice masses on Earth, but glaciology also includes the study of ice that forms on rivers, lakes, and the sea; ice in the ground, including both permafrost and seasonal ice such as that which disrupts roads in the spring; and ice that crystallizes directly from the air on structures such as antennas and airplane wings. All forms of snow research, including snow hydrology and avalanche forecasting, also fall under the broad rubric of glaciology. Even planetary geologists are involved, as two of the moons of Jupiter, Ganymede and Callisto, are believed to be composed largely of ice, and ridges interpreted as moraines suggest that Mars once had glaciers. This article, however, will be restricted to discussion of glaciers. See also: Permafrost; Snow
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