Geographic information systems
Couclelis, Helen Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.
Last reviewed:April 2018
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- Business, engineering, and defense
- Management, planning, and policy
- Other applications
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Computer-based technologies for storing, manipulating, and analyzing geographically referenced information. Attribute information and spatial information are integrated in geographic information systems (GIS) through the notion of a data layer, which is realized in two basic data models—raster and vector (Fig. 1). The major categories of applications comprise urban and environmental inventory and management, policy decision support, and planning; public utility and business (including agribusiness) applications, engineering, and defense applications; and scientific analysis and modeling.
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