Mulligan, Pamela K. Formerly, Department of Biochemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Last reviewed:May 2019
Show previous versions
- Basic techniques
- Isolation of passenger DNA
- Joining DNA molecules
- Cloning vectors
- Prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes
- Animal cells
- Plant cells
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The intentional production of new genes and alteration of genomes by the deletion, substitution, or addition of new genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the artificial recombination of nucleic acid molecules in the test tube; their insertion into a virus, bacterial plasmid, or other vector system; and the subsequent incorporation of the chimeric molecules into a host organism in which they are capable of continued propagation. The construction of such molecules also has been termed gene manipulation because it usually involves the production of novel genetic combinations by biochemical means. Importantly, genetic engineering provides the ability to propagate and grow in bulk a line of genetically identical organisms, all containing the same artificially recombinant molecule. Any genetic segment, as well as the gene product encoded by it, can therefore potentially be amplified. For these reasons, the process also has been termed molecular cloning or gene cloning (Fig. 1). The application of genetic engineering techniques is controversial, though, in particular as it relates to crops that have been genetically modified to produce a desired biological product. As such, the commercial acceptance of genetically modified organisms remains contentious. See also: Bioethics; Biotechnology; Cloning; Gene; Gene amplification; Genetically modified organism (GMO); Genetics; Genomics; Nucleic acid; Plasmid; Recombination (genetics)
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information