Liddicoat, Richard T., Jr. Gemological Institute of America, Los Angeles, California.
- Natural Gems
- Precious and semiprecious stones
- Gem materials
- Manufactured Gems
- Treated gems
- Synthetic gems
- Imitation gems
- Identification of substitutes
- Gem Cutting
- Gem Mounting
- Additional Reading
A mineral or other material that has sufficient beauty for use as personal adornment and has the durability to make this feasible. With the exception of a few materials of organic origin, such as pearl, amber, coral, and jet, and inorganic substances of variable composition, such as natural glass, gems are lovely varieties of minerals. See also: Jet (gemology)
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