Salam, Abdus Formerly, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, Trieste, Italy. Nobelist.
Last reviewed:December 2018
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- Fundamental interactions, published January 2018:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Fundamental interactions, published January 2014:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Properties of interactions
- Gravitational interaction
- Electromagnetic interaction
- Weak nuclear interactions
- Strong nuclear interaction
- Gauge interactions
- Unification of interactions
- Gravitation and electromagnetism
- Electroweak interaction
- Electronuclear interaction
- Consequences of symmetry breaking
- Prospects for including gravity
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The most basic, irreducible forces that act between elementary particles, of which all matter is assumed to be composed. The fundamental interactions describe how matter behaves on the smallest subatomic scales and the largest cosmological scales (Fig. 1). See also: Atom; Elementary particle; Matter (physics); Universe
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