Fat and oil (food)
Alam, Mohammad S. Food Protein Research and Development Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
Last reviewed:March 2019
Show previous versions
- Nutrition value
- Chemistry of fats and oils
- Production methods
- Oil modification process
- Chemical adjuvants
- Deterioration factors
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Important functional components of foods, belonging to a group of biological substance called lipids. Fats and oils are soluble in organic solvents such as hexane, petroleum ether, alcohol, and chloroform. They are insoluble in water. Fats and oils have unique properties and play a major role in human nutrition. They add flavor, texture, lubricity, and satiety to foods. Most fats and oils used for human consumption are plant-derived (Fig. 1). The major commodity fats and oils are soybean, cottonseed, canola, sunflower, corn, peanut, palm kernel, and coconut oils; others such as olive, almond, cashew nut, hazelnut, avocado, and sesame oils are considered gourmet or specialty, health-promoting oils. The major animal fats include lard from pigs, tallow from cattle and sheep, milk fat or butter from cows, and fish oil. Recently, some unique oils such as emu oil (harvested from emu birds), ostrich oil, and mink oil have been in high demand for their use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Another source of fats and oils is algae. These aquatic organisms may consist of up to 60% oils, depending on the type of species harvested. Algal oil has been used in food formulations for many decades, especially for margarine and shortening and also as a source of omega-3 fatty acids. See also: Algae; Fat and oil; Food; Lipid
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information