Martin, Arthur W. Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Physiological Problems
- Water and salts
- Other compounds
- Excretory Structures
- Contractile vacuoles
- Higher invertebrate kidneys
- Nephrons and the Vertebrata
- Excretion of Nitrogenous Wastes
- Elaboration of urea
- Urea synthesis and excretion
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The removal of excess material from a cell or a living animal. Such a definition is so broad that it is necessary to set some limits to the discussion that follows. The first limitation will be to the animal kingdom since excretion appears not to be a major problem in the plant kingdom—partly because of the difference in physiology.
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