McKenna, Malcolm C. American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York.
Last reviewed:December 2019
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An order established for the unique mammal Arsinoitherium, which has been found only in early Oligocene deposits in northern Egypt. This animal was of rhinoceros size with a large body and short pillarlike legs (see illustration). There were two huge, scimitarlike horns over the nose and two much smaller, peglike horns over the eyes. As in many herbivorous mammals, the cusps of the high-crowned teeth were connected to form two transverse lophs on each tooth. The exact relationship of this exotic order to other orders is not clear, but similarities to both the uintatheres, or Dinocerata and Hyracoidea have been interpreted by some authorities as evidence of kinship. See also: Dinocerata; Mammalia
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