Close, Frank E. Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Last reviewed:February 2019
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- Elementary particle, published February 2018:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Elementary particle, published November 2015:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Historical overview
- Fundamental particles and interactions
- Beyond the standard model
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Fundamental, irreducible units that constitute the matter of the universe and express the forces of nature. The standard model of particle physics, which emerged in the 1970s, classifies and describes the 17 known elementary particles in terms of their properties such as mass, spin and charge (Fig. 1 and table). See also: Electric charge; Mass; Spin (quantum mechanics); Standard model
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