Siegbahn, Kai M. Formerly, Institute of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nobelist.
Siegbahn, Hans Formerly, Institute of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Last reviewed:June 2020
- Modes of excitation
- ESCA chemical shifts
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A form of spectroscopy which deals with the emission and recording of the electrons which constitute matter—solids, liquids, or gases. The usual form of spectroscopy concerns the emission or absorption of photons [x-rays, ultraviolet (uv) rays, visible or microwave wavelengths, and so on]. Electron spectra can be excited by x-rays, which is the basis for electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), or by uv photons, or by ions (electrons; Fig. 1). By means of x-ray or uv photons with energy Eh v, photoelectron spectra (PES) are produced when electrons with binding energies Eb are emitted with energy Ekinetic from bound molecular states, according to the equation below.
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