Glantz, Michael H. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
Sarachik, Edward S. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
- Limiting the impact
- Tropical Pacific Ocean
- Temperature, pressure, and precipitation cycles
- Observing ENSO
- History of ENSO
- Decadal ENSO
- Theories of ENSO
- Modeling ENSO
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
In general, an influx of warm water to the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean off the coast of Peru and Ecuador, with a return period of 4–7 years. El Niño events come in various strengths: weak, moderate, strong, very strong, and extraordinary. The size of an event can be determined using various criteria: the amount of warming of sea-surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific from their average condition; the areal extent of that warm water anomaly; and the length of time that the warm water lingers before being replaced by colder-than-average sea-surface temperatures in this tropical Pacific region.
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