Popper, Arthur N. Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
Webster, Douglas B. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Biocommunication, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Last reviewed:October 2021
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- Ear structure
- Sensory hair cells
- Birds and reptiles
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The organ that sends information about sound to the brain, constituting the sense of hearing, as well as vestibular information about the orientation of the head in space. The vertebrate ear (Fig. 1) is generally divided into three regions that have discrete functions. The inner ear is found in all vertebrates, and it subsumes both hearing and balance (functions). The external (outer) ear and the middle ear, not found in all vertebrates, enhance hearing. See also: Brain; Hearing (human); Hearing (vertebrate); Phonoreception; Sound; Vertebrata
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