Dynamic nuclear polarization
Daniels, James M. Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Shivakumar, B. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
- Microwave pumping
- Polarization by rotation
- Optical pumping
- Laser-induced polarization
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The creation of assemblies of nuclei whose spin axes are not oriented at random, and which are in a steady state that is not a state of thermal equilibrium. Under commonly occurring conditions, the spin axes of nuclei (with nonzero spin) are oriented at random; where this is not so, the nuclei are said to be polarized. Assemblies of polarized nuclei are not in a state of thermal equilibrium except under rather extreme conditions (for example, temperatures below 10 millikelvins or 0.02°F above absolute zero, and magnetic fields greater than several teslas), and schemes have been devised to produce polarized assemblies, in a steady state which is not a state of thermal equilibrium, under less extreme conditions. Such schemes constitute dynamic nuclear polarization.
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