- Food Science & Technology
- Food technology
- Dietary fructose and the physiology of body weight regulation
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Dietary fructose and the physiology of body weight regulation
Stanhope, Kimber L. Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis, California.
- Role of leptin
- Fructose malabsorption
- Regional adipose distribution
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Consumption of dietary fructose has increased in conjunction with the rising intake of fructose-containing sugars, largely in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. One systematic review of the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of weight gain has concluded that increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight gain, whereas another study has reported no such relationship. A recent meta-analysis of six sugar-sweetened beverage intervention studies showed dose-dependent increases in weight. In contrast, another meta-analysis concluded that long-term daily fructose consumption of up to 95% of normal intake is not associated with an increase in energy intake or body weight in healthy, normal-weight humans or overweight or obese humans. Despite this lack of consensus, there is a mechanistic basis for the hypothesis that consumption of fructose-containing sugars could be contributing to the obesity epidemic. The objectives herein are to review this mechanism, present evidence that does and does not support it, and discuss the reason that such evidence may be confounded. Additionally, the mechanism by which fructose may be affecting the distribution of weight gain will be discussed.
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