Evans, Doris L. Research and Development Division, Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Classical Fundamentals
- Faces and zones
- Spherical projection
- Bravais lattices
- Miller indices
- Symmetry operations and space groups
- Properties and models
- Modern Crystallography
- Laue theory
- Bragg spectrometer and modeling
- Bragg equation
- X-ray spectra and synchrotron radiation
- Technological and Scientific Applications
- Data collection
- Basic structures and properties
- Relation of structure and composition
- Studies of response to change
- Dynamic studies
- Structure of glass
- Living systems and other challenges
- Advanced probes and detailed modeling
- Icosahedral crystals
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The branch of science that deals with the geometric forms of crystals. The field of crystallography originated in the prehistoric observation of geometric forms of minerals, such as a collection of quartz (SiO2) crystals (Fig. 1). These crystals grow as hexagonal pyramids, with growth being terminated by the coming together of external faces to form a pinnacle. Equally beautiful forms can be made by very simple procedures. How to describe, classify, and measure such forms are the first questions of crystallography. Revealing the forces that made them and the activities within them are the modern directions of the field. This article deals with the rigor, scope, and impact of crystallography, its interdisciplinary nature, and the key results and successes that have made it historically continuous and vital. For other aspects of crystallography See also: Crystal structure; Polymorphism (crystallography)
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