Fowler, W. Beall Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Kosterlitz, John Michael Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Nobelist.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Surfaces and interfaces
- Chemical impurities
- Structural defects
- Defect chemistry
- Topological defects
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Departures of a crystalline solid from a regular array of atoms or ions. A “perfect” crystal of sodium chloride (NaCl), for example, would consist of alternating Na+ and Cl- ions on an infinite three-dimensional simple cubic lattice, and a simple defect (a vacancy) would be a missing Na+ or Cl− ion. There are many other kinds of possible defects, ranging from simple and microscopic, such as the vacancy and other structures (Fig. 1), to complex and macroscopic, such as the inclusion of another material, or a surface.
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