Daney, David E. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.
- Production of low temperatures
- Storage and handling of cryogens
- Additional Readings
The science and technology of phenomena and processes at low temperatures, defined arbitrarily as below 150 K (°F). Phenomena that occur at cryogenic temperatures include liquefaction and solidification of ambient gases (Table 1); loss of ductility and embrittlement of some structural materials such as carbon steel; increase in the thermal conductivity to a maximum value, followed by a decrease as the temperature is lowered further, of relatively pure metals, ionic compounds, and crystalline dielectrics (diamond, sapphire, solidified gases, and so forth); decrease in the thermal conductivity of metal alloys and plastics; decrease in the electrical resistance of relatively pure metals; decrease in the heat capacity of solids; decrease in thermal noise and disorder of matter; and appearance of quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity. See also: Electrical resistivity; Specific heat of solids; Superconductivity; Superfluidity; Thermal conduction in solids
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