Daney, David E. Retired, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Last reviewed:September 2019
Show previous versions
- Production of low temperatures
- Cryogenic refrigeration principles
- Gas liquefaction principles
- Storage and handling of cryogens
- Transfer and metering
- Oxygen and nitrogen
- Liquefied natural gas
- Physics research
- Electric power systems
- Other applications
- Superconductivity use
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The science and technology of phenomena and processes at low temperatures, defined generally and arbitrarily as below 150°C (123 K or −238°F). Numerous novel and interesting phenomena occur at cryogenic temperatures. These include liquefaction (Fig. 1) and solidification of ambient gases (Table 1); loss of ductility and embrittlement of some structural materials such as carbon steel; increase in the thermal conductivity to a maximum value, followed by a decrease as the temperature is lowered further, of relatively pure metals, ionic compounds, and crystalline dielectrics (diamond, sapphire, solidified gases, and so forth); decrease in the thermal conductivity of metal alloys and plastics; decrease in the electrical resistance of relatively pure metals; decrease in the heat capacity of solids; decrease in thermal noise and disorder of matter; and appearance of quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity. See also: Electrical resistivity; Specific heat of solids; Superconductivity; Superfluidity; Temperature; Thermal conduction in solids
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information