Peter, Patrick Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Paris, France.
- Evolution of string networks
- Observational consequences
- Superconducting strings
- Cosmic superstrings
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Hypothetical thin tubes that carry very large amounts of vacuum energy. They belong to the class of objects known as topological defects. As the universe expands, its temperature decreases and its microscopic properties, such as the strength with which fundamental particles interact, sometime change abruptly in what are called phase transitions. A well-known example of such a transition is when water freezes into ice when the temperature drops below 0°C (32°F). Strings are predicted to form at these transitions. In this context, the lowest energy state of the universe, which is called the “vacuum” although it is not necessarily empty, can have a nontrivial structure in space, and strings appear as defects in this structure. See also: Dark energy; Energy level (quantum mechanics); Phase transitions
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information