Dhir, Vijay K. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
- Film condensation
- Dropwise condensation
- Direct contact condensation
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A phase-change process in which vapor converts into liquid when the temperature of the vapor is reduced below the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure in the vapor. For a pure vapor this pressure is the total pressure, whereas in a mixture of a vapor and a noncondensable gas it is the partial pressure of the vapor. Sustaining the process of condensation on a cold surface in a steady state requires cooling of the surface by external means. Condensation is an efficient heat transfer process and is utilized in various industrial applications. Condensation of vapor on a cold surface can be classified as film-wise or drop-wise. Direct-contact condensation refers to condensation of vapor (bubbles or a vapor stream) in a liquid or condensation on liquid droplets entrained in the vapor. If vapor temperature falls below its saturation temperature, condensation can occur in the bulk vapor. This phenomenon is called homogeneous condensation (formation of fog) and is facilitated by foreign particles such as dust. See also: Gas; Heat transfer
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