Colony collapse disorder
vanEngelsdorp, Dennis Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
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- Decline of bee populations
- Causes of colony collapse disorder
- Potential effect on agriculture
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A detrimental condition in honeybee colonies characterized by a rapid loss of the adult bee population, with an absence of dead bees in and around affected colonies. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) first came to light in the fall of 2006. Since that time, it is one of the foremost threats to managed honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the United States (Fig. 1). The condition has spread to many areas of Europe as well. Numerous stressors (for example, compromised immune function, viral pathogens, parasites, and exposure to pesticides and insecticides) have been ascribed as being the cause (or causes) of colony collapse disorder, but so far there has been no official determination. See also: Beekeeping; Die-off of bees; Hymenoptera; Insect diseases; Pathology; Population ecology
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