Spackman, William Department of Geology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
- Nature of coal seams
- Plant fossils in coal seams
- Sedimentary units of coal seams
- Interrelations with coal petrology
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A special branch of the paleobotanical sciences concerned with the origin, composition, mode of occurrence, and significance of the fossil plant materials that occur in, or are associated with, coal seams. Information developed in this field of science provides knowledge useful to the biologist in efforts to describe the development of the plant world, aids the geologist in unraveling the complexities of coal measure stratigraphy in order to reconstruct the geography of past ages and to describe ancient climates, and has practical application in the coal, coke, and coal chemical industries. See also: Coal; Coal chemicals; Paleobotany
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