Kutzbach, John E. Department of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
Last reviewed:May 2018
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- Climate history, published October 2015:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Climate history, published June 2014:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Solar irradiance
- Orbital parameters
- Lithosphere motions
- Volcanic activity
- Internal variability of climate system
- Human activities
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The long-term records of precipitation, temperature, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. Climate, like the Earth itself, has a history extending over several billion years. Climatic changes have occurred at time scales ranging from hundreds of millions of years to centuries and decades (Fig. 1). Processes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere (snow cover, sea ice, continental ice sheets), biosphere, and lithosphere (such as plate tectonics and volcanic activity) and solar activity have caused these changes of climate.
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