DISCLAIMER: This article is being kept online for historical purposes. Though accurate at last review, it is no longer being updated. The page may contain broken links or outdated information.
Gardner, Douglas J. Department of Forest Management, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
- Cellulose nanocomposites
- Potential applications of cellulose nanocomposites
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Cellulose is a natural polymer material made of β-d-glucopyranose units that are linked together by (1→4)-glycosidic bonds. The length of a native cellulose molecule is at least 5000 nm, corresponding to a chain with about 10,000 glucopyranose units. Cellulose molecules are linear and are aggregated through secondary valence forces, including van der Waals forces and both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. In a plant cell wall, the linear cellulose chains, referred to as microfibrils, are approximately 3.5 × 10 nm in cross-sectional dimension and of indeterminate length. The microfibrils have both crystalline and amorphous regions. The linear cellulose molecules and the supermolecular microfibrils have a dominant influence on the behavior of plant cell walls as a material. The molecular organization of cellulose in the plant cell wall contributes to its unique polymer properties. For improving the interaction or interfacial adhesion of cellulose with other materials, including polymers, in the creation of nanocomposites, it is possible to chemically modify its surface. Cellulose reactivity or a lack thereof depend on its structure. To modify cellulose structure, the highly ordered hydrogen-bonded lattice must be disrupted by swelling or dissolution. The reactive sites on cellulose, which may be derivatized, are the three hydroxyl groups indicated as C-2, C-3, and C-6 in Fig. 1.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 45 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information