DISCLAIMER: This article is being kept online for historical purposes. Though accurate at last review, it is no longer being updated. The page may contain broken links or outdated information.
Chew, Teng-Leong Cell Imaging Facility, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
- Photobleaching techniques
- Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)
- Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP)
- Photoswitch techniques
- Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Proteins, the molecules that perform the majority of biological functions in a cell, are in general colorless. Biologists conventionally use fluorescently tagged antibodies that specifically recognize their proteins of interest in order to indirectly visualize these biomolecules. Antibodies can be introduced into the cells by one of two methods: (1) permeabilization, wherein solvents, detergents, or drugs are used to form gaps in the plasma membrane that allow the passage of the antibodies; (2) microinjection, through which antibodies are introduced with a microneedle. In most cases, permeabilization kills the cells, and immunofluorescence of fixed cells generates only static images, providing a snapshot of otherwise highly dynamic biological structures and processes. On the other hand, microinjection will generate a high local protein concentration of antibodies that may affect the biological functions of the cells. In addition, microinjection is a laborious process that results in relatively few cells suitable for imaging.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information