Cronquist, Arthur New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York.
Barkley, Theodore M. Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
- Additional Readings
An order of flowering plants, division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), in the subclass Rosidae of the class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). The order consists of 11 families and more than 2000 species, with the families Celastraceae (about 800 species), Aquifoliaceae (about 400 species), Icacinaceae (about 400 species), and Hippocrateaceae (about 300 species) forming the core of the group. The order is marked by its simple leaves and regular flowers, varying from hypogynous (those with the perianth and stamens attached directly to the receptacle, beneath the ovary) to perigynous (those with the perianth and stamens united at the base into a hypanthium distinct from the ovary) and with a single set of stamens which alternate with the petals. Nearly all of the species are woody plants. Various species of holly (Ilex, family Aquifoliaceae; see illustration) and Euonymus (Celastraceae) are often cultivated. See also: Holly; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Plant kingdom; Rosidae
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