DiBiase, David Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Last reviewed:June 2018
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- Maps and uses
- Map scale and geographic detail
- Reference maps
- Thematic maps
- Constructing geographic information
- Influence of computing technology
- Digital geographic data
- Constructing geographic understanding
- Geographic information systems
- Interactive cartography
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The techniques concerned with constructing maps from geographic information. Maps are spatial representations of the environment. Typically, maps take graphic form, appearing on computer screens or printed on paper (Fig. 1), but they may also take tactile or auditory forms for the visually impaired. Other representations such as digital files of locational coordinates or even mental images of the environment are also sometimes considered to be maps, or virtual maps. See also: Map design; Physical geography
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