Baldridge, W. Scott Earth and Space Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Last reviewed:November 2019
- Pyroclastic eruption
- Postcollapse volcanism
- Geothermal systems
- Consequences to humans
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A large volcanic collapse depression, typically circular to slightly elongate in shape, the dimensions of which are many times greater than any included vent (Fig. 1). Calderas range from a few miles to 45 mi (75 km) in diameter. A caldera may resemble a volcanic crater in form but differs genetically in that it is a collapse rather than a constructional feature. The topographic depression resulting from collapse is commonly widened by slumping of the sides along shallowly rooted faults, so that the topographic caldera wall lies outside the main structural boundary. A caldera may include vents formed by postcollapse volcanism. Its name derives from the Spanish caldera, meaning caldron or kettle. As originally defined, caldron referred to volcanic subsidence structures, and caldera referred only to the topographic depression formed by collapse. However, caldera is now common as a synonym for caldron, denoting both topographic and structural features of collapse. See also: Petrology
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 45 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information