Taylor, Paul D. Department of Palaeontology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.
Ryland, John S. School of Natural Resources, University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay, Suva, Fiji.
McKinney, Frank K. Department of Geology, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina.
Last reviewed:October 2019
- General Characteristics
- Taxonomy and classification
- Functional morphology of zooid
- Metabolic integration and colony evolution
- Nervous system
- Reproduction and growth
- Geological history
- Evolutionary relationships
- Evolutionary paleoecology
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A phylum of sessile aquatic invertebrates (also called Polyzoa) that form colonies of zooids. Each zooid, in its basic form, has a lophophore of ciliated tentacles situated distally on an introvert, a looped gut with the mouth inside the lophophore and the anus outside, a coelomic body cavity, and (commonly) a protective skeleton (Fig. 1). The colonies are variable in size and habit (Figs. 2 and 3). Some are known as lace corals and others as sea mats or moss animals, but the only general name is bryozoans.
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