Schurig, Gerhardt G. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
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An infectious, zoonotic disease of various animals and humans caused by Brucella bacteria; also known as Malta fever, Mediterranean fever, and undulant fever. Each species of Brucella tends to preferentially infect a particular animal, but several types can infect humans. Brucella melitensis (which preferentially infects goats and sheep), B. suis (which infects pigs), and B. abortus (which infects cattle) are the most common causes of human brucellosis. Brucella melitensis is the most virulent for humans, followed by B. suis and B. abortus. Brucella canis (see illustration) and B. ovis, which infect dogs and sheep, respectively, rarely infect humans. Although brucellosis is found all over the world, the disease has been eradicated in many countries. The brucellae are small, gram-negative coccobacilli. They are defined as facultative intracellular parasites because they are able to replicate within specialized cells of the host. See also: Bacteria; Bacteriology; Epidemiology; Medical bacteriology; Zoonoses
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